Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the common complications of diabetes mellitus that has become the leading cause of end stage renal failure in many developed countries. In general, 1 of 3 diabetic patients is developing diabetic nephropathy. High blood pressure, high cholesterol and smoking are increasing the risk of development of diabetic nephropathy. Glomerular basement membrane thickening and mesangial expansion are the main morphological features of the diabetic nephropathy. The main objective of this review is to discuss about the pathophysiology, screening and diagnosis, risk factor and management.