Abstract: The process of intracellular components being broken down by lysosomes is known as autophagy. By destroying intracellular components and giving cells breakdown products, autophagy plays a crucial part in preserving and regulating cell homeostasis . The most recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy serves a variety of physiological and pathological functions, some of which are intricate. There are fewer autophagic vacuoles and poorer lysosome fusion as autophagy decreases with age. The innate immune system is strengthened by activating the autophagic pathway, which has also been shown to be helpful in avoiding different foreign infections. Tau and synuclein protein accumulation result from a decrease in autophagic protein clearance in neurodegenerative diseases. Similar to this, lysosomal lipid accumulation results from autophagic failure. Tumors are first suppressed by autophagy, but they are subsequently immune system-protected. Muscle and cardiac issues are favourably and negatively regulated by autophagy, respectively.